Tests on rats show blocking connections to cells which “nurture” developing sperm makes the animals infertile.
The US and Italian researchers say they used relatively low doses of the molecule and found no obvious side effects, and the effect was reversible.
But they told Nature Medicine that work was now needed to see if their approach is equally effective and safe in men.
When sperm are being made in the body in a process called spermatogenesis they sit next to other cells, called Sertoli cells, which nurse and help them grow.
If the connection between these two cell types is broken, infertility can result in men.
In the study authors used a recently developed molecule called Adjudin to dislodge the developing sperm from the Sertoli cells.
However Adjudin is also known to be toxic at high doses.
To get round this, the researchers linked it chemically to a hormone, called FSH, which acts in the testicles where sperm are made.
The FSH, which the researchers made inactive so it would merely act as a carrier and not cause any effect itself, delivered Adjudin to where it was needed, allowing much lower doses to be given.
This made the developing sperm cells “fall off” too early, before they were properly mature, resulting in complete but temporary loss of fertility in the rats.
More research is needed to assess if the same approach could work in humans.
But the researchers, led by Dr Dolores Mruk, from the Center For Biomedical Research in New York, said: “We anticipate that this compound could become a male contraceptive for human use.”
Dr Richard Anderson, from the University of Edinburgh, who has been investigating hormonal male contraceptives in the UK, said: “This is very promising.
“A non-hormonal approach to male contraception using a drug which specifically targets a process in spermatogenesis has long been a very attractive option, as it leaves hormone production by the testis intact.”
He said it appeared the drug effects could be fully reversible, although only a single dose was given in the study.
“Clearly there are enormous amounts of work needed to translate this to humans.
“Adjudin may be ineffective in men, as the biochemistry of the cell junctions it targets may be different, and the precise molecular basis of its mechanism of action is unknown.
“However, perhaps the most important aspect of this study is the demonstration that using FSH targeting, drugs that are otherwise too toxic, can be delivered in safe yet effective doses.”
Relax ladies! I’m not ttc at the moment!
Does or has anyone every charted their BBT when trying to conceive?
The Basal Body Temperature is your body’s core temperature. When you ovulate, your BBT increases slightly and so by charting your BBT over your monthly cycle, you can see if ovulation has occurred by a temperature shift. In order to monitor this effectively, you need to use a digital thermometer that goes to 2 decimal places so that the slight shift of 0.1 to 0.2 degrees can be picked up. You also need to take your temperature as soon as you wake, before getting out of bed, eating or drinking.
When we were ttc Ella, I started to track my BBT to see if I was ovulating as my cycle is very erratic so I could never get the hang of using the sticks. The chart showed that I didn’t ovulate every month.
We’re going to start ttc again at some point and so I decided to start tracking my BBT again to get an idea of what my body is doing post-Ella. The problem is that BBT tracking works best if you take your temperature at the same time every morning, and if you haven’t had a disturbed night! Well, there’s the floor in the plan as Miss Mears doesn’t believe in sleeping through the night!
As a result, my BBT chart is somewhat all over the place. That said, I have seen over the past 2 months that I seem to have a 10 day luteal phase (the time between ovulation and the 1st day of your period). If thats correct, then I may have been plotting ovulation incorrectly in the past.
Anyway, my point/question is, has anyone else done BBT charting and if so, did you do it when suffering from a number of disturbed nights!? If you have a disturbed night, your BBT can be higher than normal and so show a false reading on your chart. To identify the temperature shift when ovulation occurs, you need to look for a reading that is higher than the previous 6 – which with lots of spikes for disturbed nights isn’t easy!
Pregnancies are Different
This is a members article written by Vickimom
The correct price for the Sylvanian Wedding Chapel is
The check, carried out as part of the standard “heel-prick test” that looks for other health problems, spots both the full-blown disease and carriers.
Sickle cell is a condition that affects the normal oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells and ranges in severity.
In England, it affects about 12,500 people and about 240,000 are carriers of the faulty genes that cause it.
The screening, which has been introduced over recent years, is expected to identify more than 300 babies a year in England who would otherwise be at very high risk of severe complications and, in some cases, death if the correct treatment is not administered, experts estimate.
The heel prick test, which also checks for a range of other diseases such as cystic fibrosis, is carried out by midwives or health visitors in the first week or two after the birth.
Heel prick test
The test involves pricking the baby’s heel to collect some small drops of blood.
In Britain, sickle cell is most common in people of African and Caribbean descent. However, it can affect anyone.
Racial diversity and mixed race marriages also means more people could be carriers but not realise that they are.
Allison Streetly, director of the NHS Sickle Cell & Thalassaemia Screening Programme, said screening was crucial to spot those at risk.
She explained: “It is no longer possible to assume who may or may not be affected.”
All pregnant women in England should also be offered a blood test in early pregnancy to check whether they carry a gene for sickle cell anaemia or a similar blood disorder called thalassaemia.
Where a woman is a genetic carrier, the baby’s father is also offered testing. If both parents are carriers, there is a one in four chance with each pregnancy that the baby will have the disorder.
At-risk couples will be offered a range of counselling and diagnostic tests for the baby.
Such antenatal screening has been rolled out in most high prevalence areas. It is hoped full coverage throughout England will be achieved by summer 2007.
Dr John Sentamu, Archbishop of York and chair of the NHS Sickle Cell & Thalassaemia Screening steering group, said he was delighted to see the investment in screening, but said investment in care was now needed.
A spokeswoman from the Sickle Cell Society said couples should also consider screening before trying for a baby.
Yesterday I went to the pain clinic. I have to say I wasn’t looking forward to it as the closest pain clinic to us is Bury St Edmunds – an hour + drive away! I had also been feeling much better with the chiropractor so wasn’t sure it was worth it but as I’d been waiting 13 weeks for the appointment I thought I’d give it a go. Am I glad I did!
I was called in by a lovely nurse and the Dr asked me to explain what had happened. So I started with my pregnancy and got up to today. Then he asked if I had been flexible as a child or had had joint problems in the past. I said yes and I have had loads of problems with wrists and ankles. He looked at my wrists and said I have hypermobility and ligament laxity (or something).
Then he took me through to the exam room. Prodded and poked at my groin, hips and back until I was nearly crying in pain and declared I was a mess (his words not mine)!
This was when I was expecting him to fob me off with painkillers or similar and tell me to go, instead…
He then told me about a treatment he does for this where under xray conditions he injects the ligaments around the pelvis with something that will tighten the ligaments. I will have a course of this and if it helps he will then do a more permanent procedure meaning I will be SPD free – hopefully for life! He’s done it lots before with great results and is going to send me all the information on it. He is the only person in the area doing this so I will have to go back to bury but I am over the moon someone has actually taken me seriously and diagnosed me!
I am now looking to a pain free future!
The vast majority of breastfed babies manage to go through the
teething process without attempting to bite their mothers!
Many mums are told to wean when their babies get their first tooth
but this is not necessary. Many babies never attempt to bite and
those who try once are so startled by their mum’s reaction they
never do it again!
When a baby breastfeeds, the mother’s nipple is positioned far back
in it’s mouth, and the baby’s lips are positioned well behind the nipple
on the outer edge of the areola (the coloured part that surrounds the
nipple). The baby’s tongue extends beyond the gums between the
lower teeth and the breast. Therefore, even after a baby’s teeth
erupt, he cannot bite when he is ACTIVELY nursing.
If your baby does bite the natural reaction will be to pull him off the
breast. This could cause your nipples even more damage than the
bite. The very best thing to do is stay calm (difficult I know!) and
actually PULL HIM IN CLOSE! If you pull him in this will partially block
his airway and he will release the nipple. Babies are sensitive even
to a slight block of their nose and will release as a reflex action.
If biting persists there are a number of strategies that can help.
1. Give baby your complete attention during nursing. Give lots of
eye-contact, touching and talk to your baby. This will also help you
see when baby is becoming uninterested in feeding and may be
ready to stop nursing.
2. Learn to recognise the end of a feed. Most biting, if it is going to
occur will happen at the end of a feed, when the baby has lost
interest. While watching your baby you may notice tension develop
in the jaw before he actually bites down. This is a signal to break the
suction by gently popping your pinky into the side of baby’s mouth,
and take baby off the breast before a bite!
3. Don’t force a feed! If baby is wriggling, rolling or pushing against
mum it is probably not hungry or interested in feeding. If baby is
definitely due to be fed try lying down in a quiet room with baby lying
beside you to help settle him down enough to feed.
4. Keep your milk supply plentiful. If baby gets frustrated at the
breast from too little milk it may increase the odds he will bite.
Human milk is the ONLY food a baby needs until the middle of the
first year. If other foods are used too early, or the baby is given
regular drinks of water or juice it will interfere with mum’s milk
supply. You can boost your supply by expressing milk in addition to
feeding your baby frequently. Remember breastmilk is on a supply
and demand basis.
5. For persistent biters- keep your wee finger poised to release the
suction and, if baby bites put them quickly and quietly down on the
floor. ( Obviously if you are in a nice carpeted room- not if you’re in
the middle of a cafe or on a bus.)
The baby associates feelings of comfort and security as well as
satisfaction of hunger with his mother. He doesn’t understand that
putting his teeth on her nipple causes her pain. Babies do not bite
out of “meanness”. A baby has to learn what to do with his new teeth
while nursing, and this is sometimes learnt by trial and error.
Kefir is a fermented milk drink made from live bacteria cultures which is credited with having health benefits in parts of eastern Europe.
Research published by the Society of Chemical Industry reports kefir contains bacteria which could help reduce allergic responses.
Experts warned that much more testing needed to be done on the product.
Between 5% and 8% of children under the age of three are at risk from food allergies.
Currently, the only way to deal with food allergies is to avoid problematic food.
According to the research, the milk drink inhibits the allergen specific antibody Immunoglobulin E (IgE).
IgE is involved in immune responses to inactivate organisms that might cause disease.
However, in the presence of allergens, it can also activate cells responsible for the release of histamine, a chemical which stimulates allergic responses, such as inflammation and constriction of airways.
Tests found that the amount of Ovalbumin specific IgE was reduced by three times when the milky drink was fed to mice. Ovalbumin is allergenic protein found in egg white which cause most allergies in young children.
Ji-Ruei Liu, who led the research at the National Formosa University in Taiwan, said: “In the future, maybe we can screen out the certain components (bacterial strains or bioactive peptides) from kefir and utilize them in medicine.”
Sharon Matthews, an allergy specialist from the Isle of Wight NHS Primary Care Trust in the UK, said: “We need much more supportive evidence before a human trial could be contemplated.”
The research featured in the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.