Monthly Archives: August 2005

Weaning Foods ‘a DIY guide’

Weaning Foods ‘a DIY guide’

What you need to make your own baby food:

A cheap hand held blender (Argos sell them for £4.99).  If you can not afford a hand held blender then a sieve can do the same job but it will take a little more work on your part, as you will have to push the cooked food threw the sieve with a metal spoon but you will end up with puree the same as with a blender.  Of course if you are Miss Money bags then a £400.00 blender will do the job too.

Ice cube trays, just any cheap plastic ice cube trays, I bought mine in Morrisons for 30p for 2.  The more you have the better but 8 is probably a good number.


Spoons, saucepans and a cooker or microwave, plastic storage containers (old ice cream tubs are great) or freezer bags.  Remember to label the containers/bags and date them so that you don’t keep them for longer than 3mnths.

Most fruit and vegetables can be boiled in a small amount of water and then pureed and frozen in individual ice cubes, once frozen they can be emptied out into either a plastic container or a freezer bag and stored in the freezer for when you need them.  The easiest way to get the cubes out of the trays is to twist the ice cube tray and the frozen contents will pop out.  Never add salt to any vegetables that you cook as salt is harmful to babies and children.  Try not to add sugar unless you feel the fruit is very sour and then only add a small amount.

The good thing about making your own baby food is you know exactly what is in the food.  There are no added colours, preservatives or anything else that you would not normally eat.  It is also incredibly cheap; a jar of baby carrot food can cost around 48p where as a large bag of carrots costs about the same price and will probably make you enough cubes to last a month.  Once you have made up your cubes of food you can mix and match them as much as you want and vary babies’ diet accordingly.

Once moving away from just veg and fruit purees you can blend up roast dinners, spag bol, cottage pie, the list is endless.

Butternut Squash

(Contains Beta Carotene which converts in the body to Vitamin A.  High in Vitamin C.)

Butternut squash is a great first baby food as it has a light, sweat nutty taste.  It makes into a nice smooth puree and so is an easy first food.  Can be found in most supermarkets.

Cut off the neck of the squash as close to the rounded end as possible.  Peel the neck with a sharp knife.  All of the neck part of the squash can be eaten.  It is quite a firm vegetable to peel a bit like suede in texture.  Once you have completed the neck cut the rounded base in half that you have left.  Scoop out all the seeds and discard them.  The squash looks very much like a pumpkin in the rounded base end.  Peel the base and chop up into cubes.  Add all the peeled and cubed squash to a saucepan.  Put in a small amount of water about enough to cover half the veg, you don’t need to drown it.  Place on a hob and bring to the boil.  If you do not have a hob, bring to the boil in the microwave using a little less water.  Once boiling, cover and cook for approx 10mins.  Try not to over cook the squash as you will destroy the vitamin content of it.  Test frequently with a knife to see if the squash feels tender.

Once cooked, drain the water but do not throw it away, save it.  Let the squash cool a little and then blend or sieve it to a puree.  If you feel the mixture is to thick then add some of the saved water that you cooked the squash in (the saved water also contains vitamins so is better than adding just plain water) until it is a good consistency, then discard any unneeded water.  Divide up the mixture into your ice cube trays and freeze.  Once frozen empty the cubes into bags or containers.

The principle is pretty much the same for any fruit and veg that you choose to cook.  If boiling fruit I keep the water and use it as juice as it tastes of bland fruit juice and babies love it.  It has the added bonus of being sugar free and containing vitamins.


Avocados are great for babies and can be used as a savoury or sweet dish.  They contain the highest protein and oil content of any fruit.  They are 30% fat, but good fats not bad ones (monounsaturated) which is meant to guard against cancer and heart disease.  Avocados are also very good for premature babies to eat and help them put on weight.  You do not need to cook avocados.  Pick some nice soft ripe ones.  They have a large stone in the middle of them so cut around the avocado and twist to break it in half.  Remove the stone and scoop out the soft flesh of the fruit.  Blend them with a little cooled boiled water to modify the texture, and then freeze in your trays.  You can use the avocado from fresh and not from frozen, the downside of this is they go black if left, once frozen they don’t go black.  I use one cube of avocado to two cubes of normal pear and mix for a pudding.  You could use any fruit puree or add to a savoury meal as they do not really taste of anything.


Other fruits and veg I use are:

Nectarine (gently boiled)
Peach (gently boiled)
Apples (gently boiled)
Pears (gently boiled)
Strawberries (gently boiled)
Gooseberries (gently boiled)
Raspberries (gently boiled)
Bananas (great finger food or as a first food ripe banana mashed on its own or with a little milk.  If you microwave for a few seconds they are even easier to mash)

Butternut Squash

You can either serve them individually or mix them together to give a variation on taste.  Once you have established solids and your baby is around 7th month old you can add the fruits to plain yoghurts to give a new flavour or even some ice cream.

I blend any left over foods we have that I feel appropriate and add them to the veg purees.  Roast dinners have been a favourite of all of my children but make sure you do not use a lot of salt in your cooking if you use your own food.

If you have any recipes you would like to share why not post them by following the comments link below.

This is a members article written by MumSam


Fetal pain unlikely before third trimester-study

A human fetus is unlikely to feel pain before the third trimester, when consciousness begins to form, researchers said on Tuesday in a report that could fuel debate over proposed U.S. abortion legislation.

Even if a fetus feels pain, doctors may not be able to anesthetize it without endangering the mother’s health, including during an abortion, the researchers wrote in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Legislation under consideration by the U.S. Congress and some U.S. states would require doctors to inform women seeking abortions after the 22nd week of gestation that their fetus feels pain and offer to anesthetize the fetus.

Supporters of the legislation say that when a fetus displays a withdrawal reflex or hormonal stress response, that is evidence of fetal pain. But the researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, questioned that view, saying the responses may be automatic and not signs of discomfort.

Drawing on findings from thousands of medical-journal articles on the subject of fetal pain and related topics, the report’s author, Susan Lee, wrote that “pain is a subjective sensory and emotional experience that requires the presence of consciousness.”

Consciousness is created by brain connections between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex, and those do not begin to develop before the 23rd week and possibly not before the 30th week of gestation. The human gestation period is 38 weeks from conception.

“Conscious perception of pain does not begin before the third trimester,” Lee wrote. In the United States, only 1.4 percent of abortions are performed at or after 21 weeks gestational age, the report said.

Anesthesia is used in some surgeries where the fetus is operated on inside the womb, but it is not done to address fetal pain, Lee wrote. It is designed to relax the uterus, immobilize the fetus, or ease stress if surgical complications occur.

In addition, the dose needed to anesthetize a fetus might endanger the mother by slowing her breathing excessively, the report said, adding new anesthetizing techniques would have to be developed to address fetal pain, if it exists.

Dr. Wendy Chavkin of Physicians for Reproductive Choice, and Health, commenting on the report, said its conclusions affirmed what other experts have found, and denounced the proposed legislation concerning fetal pain.

“These laws have nothing to do with pain or pain reduction, but are clearly intended to stigmatize abortion, the women who have abortions and the doctors who provide them,” she said.

Young carers ‘need more support’

By Alison Smith
BBC News education reporter

NCH project - copyright Jenny Matthews/NCH
NCH runs 12 young carers projects across the UK
Almost two thirds of teenagers who care for a sick or disabled relative believe they do not receive enough support from their school, a survey suggests.

NCH, the children’s charity, said half of young carers devoted more than 20 hours per week to caring.

It questioned 100 carers aged 11 to 16, a quarter of whom said their education had suffered.

It said young carers could become alienated and anxious, and schools needed to be more aware of their needs.

Almost 30% of those surveyed said they had experienced bullying.

The survey also found that 65% of young carers needed to care for a relative seven days a week.

‘I do worry’

Sam has been caring for her mother, who has severe epilepsy, for 10 years.

On a good day she is fine and can cope on her own at home.

 “Dad’s in constant pain. It does stop us doing some things, such as going on family holidays”
Jamie, 15
The 15-year-old just has to remind her mother to take her medication because her memory has been badly affected by the condition.

However, on most days her mother has a fit.

“But I know what to do now and I’ve no need to call for any medical assistance,” she said.

“I make sure she’s ok until she stops fitting.

“And more generally I help out around the house if she’s not able to do that.

“I do worry about my mum when I’m at school, but I’m allowed to keep my mobile on at all times as long as it doesn’t disturb anybody.”

Although her school is supportive, Sam said many teachers did not really comprehend her situation.

“I think they could do more for me if they understood what it’s like,” she said.

Constant pain

But some young carers show that looking after a relative does not have to mean your school or social life suffers to an unbearable degree.

Jamie, 15, cares for his step-father who suffered spinal injuries in a motorbike accident.

But Jamie competes at international level in street dancing, and last year came second in an international competition of 22 countries.

“I always put my Dad first,” he said.

“Some of my dance teachers know about my situation.

NCH children's project: copyright NCH/Jenny Matthews
The charity says young carers may find it hard to plan social activities

“I have had to come home early from dancing to help look after him, but I manage to work dancing around looking after him and my school work.”

Jamie has borne the brunt of the caring responsibilities while his 16-year-old sister focused on her GCSEs.

His two brothers are a little too young to help out much, he said.

“Dad’s in constant pain. It does stop us doing some things, such as going on family holidays.

“It’s too difficult to take him around. Turbulence in an aeroplane or the swaying of a boat would hurt his back too much.”

Jamie said his school was supportive, though he said not all his teachers needed to know about his father’s injuries.

“I manage to get coursework in on time, though at times working at home can be difficult.”

Knock-on effects

George McNamara, NCH policy officer, said the response of schools to the needs of young carers was patchy.

“One young person told me that he had been sent to the head teacher for being five minutes late as a result of his responsibilities as a carer.

“We need to increase awareness of the needs of these young people.”

The emotional strain of caring for a relative is not difficult to imagine.

But Mr McNamara says the knock-on effects are not often well understood by the child’s school or friends.

“Some families may be on very low incomes because a parent cannot work.

“And a young carer will often have to look after younger siblings as well, because the parent cannot do it.

“These children have a lot of responsibility and are under a lot of pressure.”

NCH assists young carers with practical issues such as applying for benefits and organises activity days for them, aware that they cannot always enjoy the social lives other teenagers take for granted.

Mr McNamara said it was not possible to know exactly how many school-age carers there were in Britain, since some may never ask for help.

The NCH says that, in the last census in 2001, about 175,000 young people identified themselves as carers.

But the suspicion is that some may be too afraid to admit they cannot cope alone.

Web sperm sites crackdown planned

Pregnant woman in shadow
Websites offer donor eggs and sperm to women who want children
Proposals to regulate internet sites trading in human sperm and eggs are set to be unveiled this week by ministers.

The plans are part of a wider consultation on the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act (HFEA) 1990.

Websites currently fall outside existing regulation, and so do not have to comply with the same safety and quality procedures as clinics.

The head of one of the sites said he would welcome it being accredited.

“It’s better to have a medical involvement… You could spend several thousand pounds – go through several cycles and not know that your fallopian tubes were blocked for example”
Professor Ian Craft
London Fertility Centre
Clinics which carry out IVF treatment are monitored by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

But there is no such control for websites which deliver sperm and kits for insemination at home, or which match egg donors and surrogate mothers.

Because the companies operate databases, rather than actual clinics, they do not come within reach of the HFEA.

This means they are not inspected or obliged to screen donors for genetic problems or sexually transmitted infections such as HIV, which has led to concerns about safety.

The Department of Health has said there are a number of other concerns regarding how internet sites operate, including the fact that donors do not have the same legal protection as donors at regulated clinics.

This means website donors are regarded as the legal parent, unlike those who donate via clinics.

The consultation will ask if the law should be changed to make sure internet companies meet the same standards as fertility clinics – or whether the practice should be banned altogether.

‘Stringent testing’

Health Minister Caroline Flint said the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act had served well, but the government wanted to ensure legislation kept up with the latest scientific developments.

John Gonzalez, chief executive of the Man Not Included website, said his business did screen donors for HIV and other infections.

It offered a “simple route” for people who wanted to conceive, he added.

He said he supported “some sort of accreditation”, although not at the same level as fertility clinics.

“That would be like trying to saying you could have the same regulations governing the use of a tricycle to those for a Ferrari.”

‘Several thousand pounds’

Professor Ian Craft of the London Fertility Centre – a private firm which offers IVF – told the BBC: “I think it’s better to have a medical involvement – it’s not just man not included, it’s man and doctor not included.

“You could spend several thousand pounds – go through several cycles and not know that your fallopian tubes were blocked for example.

“There are always health risks if you’re not screened in the same way that you’re screened in an HFEA approved centre.”

Officials acknowledge they can target internet companies only if they are based in the UK.

TV heroes ‘fuelling bad eating’

The Simpsons
Parents said Homer Simpson promoted an unhealthy lifestyle
Children’s TV heroes are having a negative impact on their eating habits, a survey finds.

Nearly two-thirds of 2,000 parents quizzed said cartoon character Homer Simpson – famous for loving doughnuts – promoted an unhealthy lifestyle.

Big Brother contestants were also criticised, with one in 10 complaining about their love of fry-ups and sweets, the poll by food chain Somerfield said.

Food experts said it could be a “potentially serious” problem.

Child obesity levels have shot up in recent years.

“If it is having an influence as the survey suggests – and parents will know best – it is worrying”
Paul Sacher, child health expert

Among two to four-year-olds, obesity has doubled since the early 1990s, while the rate has trebled for six to 15-year-olds.

The poll revealed more than half of parents admitted to succumbing to “pester-power” by buying children their favourite foods.

But 57% said they did so because they feared confrontation.

A Somerfield spokesman said: “The idea of television influencing kids’ behaviour is nothing new, but its impact specifically on their eating habits is surprising.

“The research suggests that we need some new and credible role models that can help in the campaign to make healthy eating cool among kids.”

Paul Sacher, founder of the Institute of Child Health’s Mend Programme, which works with families on adopting healthier lifestyles, said it was a “potentially serious problem”.


“TV can obviously have a huge impact on children’s lives. If it is having an influence as the survey suggests – and parents will know best – it is worrying.”

A separate survey of more than 1,000 schoolchildren also found that two thirds were failing to eat five portions of fresh fruit or vegetables a day as the government recommends.

The unhealthiest age group was 12-year-olds with only a fifth eating the correct amount, with a further fifth only eating one portion a day.

The survey also revealed primary schools were better at promoting healthy eating than secondary schools.

And children also showed a “worrying” lack of knowledge about where food comes from.

One in five thought beef came from pigs, one in eight said cheese came from butter and one in six claimed broccoli was a baby tree.

One in 25 fathers ‘not the daddy’

Image of a dad with baby
Paternity tests may be done for medical or legal reasons
Up to one in 25 dads could unknowingly be raising another man’s child, UK health researchers estimate.

Increasing use of genetic testing for medical and legal reasons means more couples are discovering the biological proof of who fathered the child.

The Liverpool John Moores University team reached its estimate based on research findings published between 1950 and 2004.

The study appears in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

Biological father

Professor Mark Bellis and his team said that the implications of so-called paternal discrepancy were huge and largely ignored, even though the incidence was increasing.

In the US, the number of paternity tests increased from 142,000 in 1991 to 310,490 in 2001.

“Vital information is being delivered to people without very much thought about how it is going to affect them”
Lead researcher Professor Bellis

Demand for testing has grown by a factor of 10 in the last decade in the UK, according to University Diagnostics, Teddington.

The current level in the UK is somewhere between 8,900 and 20,000 tests per year.

About 5,000 of these tests are instigated at the demand of the Child Support Agency to resolve who should be paying child maintenance.

Others are done to investigate inherited health disorders and others for social reasons.

The Liverpool team found that rates of cases where a father was not the biological father of his child ranged from 1% in some studies to as much as 30%.

Experts have generally agreed that the rate is below 10%, with a 4% rate meaning that about one in 25 could be affected.

However, increasing use of genetic testing is likely to boost the rates of paternal discrepancy, say the authors.

Important consequences

Professor Bellis said the consequences of a man finding out that he is not the biological father of a child could be devastating.

It can lead to relationship breakdown, mental health problems for both partners and even domestic violence, while the children involved can experience low self-esteem and anxiety.

He said services and support should be available to minimise such negative consequences.

“In an ideal world, everyone should have counselling”
Rebecca Webster, a counsellor for private paternity testing company DNA Bioscience

However, even basic counselling is not always provided – some individuals order and receive test results by email or over a web site, he said.

“Vital information is being delivered to people without very much thought about how it is going to affect them,” he said.


Rebecca Webster, a counsellor for private paternity testing company DNA Bioscience, who speaks to about 500 men each month about such decisions, said: “We will raise the issue about whether they have thought about the consequences both for them and all those involved.

“Very often they are quite distressed and they want someone to talk to.

“By the time they get the results a lot of people have prepared themselves. But it’s a very emotional process, even if the result is the one they wanted.

“In an ideal world, everyone should have counselling and it should be available on the NHS. Unfortunately, it’s not.”

Adrienne Burgess of Fathers Direct called for a code of practice to ensure companies providing paternity tests also offer counselling.

The NSPCC said fathers who find out they have been raising another man’s child should remember that however angry they feel, they should not take this out on the child in any way.

“The child will still regard the parent as their father. Rejection could be a devastating double blow for the child, ” said a spokeswoman.

Pregnant smokers failing to quit

Pregnant woman in silhouette
The study says pregnant smokers are failing to kick their habit
The majority of women fail to give up smoking during pregnancy even when given specialist counselling, researchers have found.

The Glasgow University team discovered that despite the harmful effects smoking can have on unborn babies, most mums-to-be struggle to quit.

It is estimated that a third of pregnant women smoke.

Researchers looked at the impact one-to-one counselling by midwives had on pregnant smokers.

A total of 762 pregnant women who were regular smokers when they became pregnant took part in the study.

“A good standard of motivational interviewing provided by midwives did not help women who were smoking”
Glasgow University researcher

All of them were given standard health promotion information, but 351 were also offered up to five motivational interviews at home with specially-trained midwives.

The researchers measured the women’s levels of cotinine – a by-product of nicotine found in the blood and saliva – to check the results in women who said they were quitting or cutting down on cigarettes.

No significant differences in changes to smoking behaviour were found between the group given standard health information – the controls – and those given counselling as well.

In those offered counselling, 17 (4.8%) stopped smoking, compared to 19 (4.6%) in the control group.

Fifteen (4.2%) women in the counselling group cut down on the number of cigarettes they were smoking, compared to 26 (6.3%) in the control group.

Nicotine replacement

The researchers said: “A good standard of motivational interviewing provided by midwives did not help women who were smoking at maternity booking to stop smoking.”

They said that behavioural interventions alone in heavily-addicted pregnant women were unlikely to be effective enough to provide good value for money.

Nicotine replacement therapy is often effective in helping smokers stop, but is not routinely recommended during pregnancy.

But the researchers said that midwives could provide close supervision of nicotine replacement in women who would not be able to stop otherwise, once its safety and effectiveness had been examined.

The research was published in the British Medical Journal.

Wash capsules ‘risk to children ‘

Image of doing the washing
The liquid tablets are used instead of washing powder
Children may be at risk from washing machine capsules containing liquid detergent that could squirt in their eyes, doctors warn in The Lancet.

Staff at Children’s University Hospital in Dublin saw six cases in six months in children aged 18 months to three.

Each had suffered eye damage after they squeezed a capsule, making it burst.

Doctors called for stronger warnings on packets, but manufacturers said there were clear warnings that the products should be kept away from children.

“If they are in any way wet, they burst and splash”
Dr Noel Horgan

They also suggested that manufacturers should modify the packaging to make it child-proof.

The capsules of concentrated liquid detergent are usually round or square and designed to dissolve in the wash, releasing their contents.

“However, they are of just the right size and consistency for kids to be interested in to squeeze,” said Dr Noel Horgan, one of the consultants who wrote the Lancet letter.

Clear warning

“We want to raise people’s awareness of the possible danger. If they are in any way wet they burst and splash,” he explained.

All of the six children that he and his colleagues treated had suffered damage to the cells lining the cornea, the “window” covering the front of the eye.

“If it is possible to reformulate the product so that it is not harmful, that would be the ideal”
Child Accident Prevention Trust

Four had also sustained significant injuries to the conjunctiva, the thin transparent layer of tissue that surrounds the eye.

The children were admitted to hospital and kept in for two to five days.

Their injuries eventually healed, but Dr Horgan said they might still be at risk of longer-term problems.

He said the fluid, which is a strong alkali, could potentially damage cells that have the job of replacing older cells in the eye.

“Even though their corneas look healthy now, there can be compromise of these cells and some time in the future, these patients could be at greater risk of running into problems.”

He said the injuries might have been more serious if water had not been promptly splashed over their eyes.

‘No lasting damage’

The washing products do carry a label stating that they should be kept out of the reach of children.

Dr Horgan said: “We propose that the warning label should be more obvious.”

“They should be kept away from children…this is clearly communicated on the pack”
Procter & Gamble

He said he had written to manufacturer Procter & Gamble.

In a statement, Procter & Gamble said: “Liquid Detergent Tablets have been on the market since Spring 2001.

“Like all laundry and cleaning products, they contain surfactant that under accidental exposure can cause irritation and discomfort to the eye; which is the kind of conjunctival and, in some cases, superficial corneal effects described by the authors.

“Like other laundry products they should be kept away from children, and in the event of such accidental exposure the eye should be promptly rinsed thoroughly with plenty of water and medical advice obtained. This is clearly communicated on the pack.”

It said that safety evaluations had concluded that accidental exposure of the eye caused no lasting damage.

It added that child-proof containers caused “a significant proportion of the population very real difficulties and should only be applied when necessary.”

A spokesman from the Child Accident Prevention Trust said: “If it is possible to reformulate the product so that it is not harmful, that would be the ideal.

“Failing that, we would be supportive for improving the storage instructions and looking into the issue of putting the product into child-proof containers.”

Gallery Cleanup and More

I’m going to have a clean up of the members galleries over the next few days, a lot of members have asked for galleries and never used them, I’m going to delete these and any, that are felt to be really in-active, the ones where people have joined the community, asked for a gallery on the first day, uploaded one image of their aunties parrot and have never returned again.

There are couple of good reasons for this, for one the galleries use up valuable resources on the site, another is that a random members latest images are shown on the front page and all too often empty galleries are being shown, spoiling in my honest opinion the look of the site and lastly it would make it easier for all members to navigate the existing galleries if the empty ones were removed because there will be less pages steer through.

I’ve made a couple of other small changes as well. Before there were several items that did not show to guests only too logged in users, for example the random gallery images and the latest gallery images for privacy reasons. The problem I was finding was it is difficult to maintain a continuity within the layout members see and the layout of the site that guests see, for example surfers visiting the site for the first time as guest would see column one a lot shorter than column 3 which once again in my humble opinion spoils the overall look of the site, especially when trying to make the site/community an attractive place join. I’ve now enabled these two items for guest viewing but what I have done to protect privacy is; if the person viewing is a guest they will see instead of the actual image, a dummy blurred image, I’ve done this purely to keep a balance with the layouts. If you are unsure to what I mean, logout of the site and see it first hand. I’ve also enabled the Chatterbox so it is seen by guests, they are unable though to actually use it or use any of its functions, once again logout and you will see, my only word of warning here is, if you are having a conversation with someone and you do not want any chance of it being seen outside of the madmums community then simply switch to another room, as guests can only see the default room and not switch.

Lastly I want to ask you all what you think about changing the madmums registration process? At the moment as you know, new members must sign up, then activate there accounts via an email that is sent to them. The problem I am seeing is there are a lot of none active accounts at the moment, this is due to two main reasons. People join and incorrectly type their email address in the registration form the other is because of this age of spam we live in, a lot of email gets filtered both at ISP level and personal level meaning emails never reach there intended destination. I would like to suggest that we trial, having an easier, instant registration and see if we get an trolls join, I can always change it back if needs be but ultimately it’s up to you, so please post some feedback on this.


Madmums Flyers/Ads

A few members have asked for something they can print off and display or pass on to people or groups they are involved with. So here below is a link to a flyer that you can print off. The document is a pdf file, so no one should have any trouble opening it, you can either left click on the link to open it or if you prefer right click and select Save Target as… to save it locally for easier opening and printing.

There are two flyers on one page (A4) so you will need to cut them in half

If anyone has any problems viewing this document or has any questions please feel free to ask.

Please put these flyers where you see fit, it would nice way to recruit more members, MM’s can’t keep relying on Jen to spam other sites



*Edit you will need a pdf reader to view this document, if you are unable to see the document then you probably do not have one installed on your computer, you can download (for free) Adobe Reader which will allow you to view pdf documents from the link below.

It’s worth installing this if you do not have it as you will one day in your life as a PC user, use it. The majority of electronic printed instructions and manuals come in this format for the reason that it can be read for free by anyone, unlike for example word documents.

*Another Edit

For mum2joshua and anyone else that can not open pdf documents.

I have put them on a printer friendly page they will require a little more trimming than the pdf documents because as they are being printed direct from a web page they will probably have a page number and file address put on them automatically by your printer unless you have an option to switch this off. So my advice is if you can you use the pdf version then do, if you can’t click the link above for a web page (html) version.